“A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin and culture, is like a tree without roots.”

Marcus Mosiah Garvey (1887 – 1940)

Every year in October we celebrate BLACK HISTORY MONTH. Black history is with us every second, minute, hour, week, month and year. PANTHER NEWSLETTER’S CULTURE CORNER will attempt to enlighten you with what they never told you in your history class. Our story will be told right here – So enjoy the journey of clarification.


“It is only when man becomes master of his fate – able to determine his destiny – that he can be free  from fears and inferiority…”

His Imperial Majesty Emperor Haile Selassie I: July 2, 1963


Blacks in Britain (Part ten) 

Not widely known – But true…


1960 – Birmingham Immigration Control Association – a fascist far right-wing political cell was created. Its inception was heralded in the British press and the group lobbied MP’s who were against further black immigration.

1961 – The British government began to keep official statistics on Commonwealth immigration.

1962 – Britain passed the Commonwealth Immigrants Act to restrict the entry of non-white Commonwealth citizens to Great Britain

1963-1966 – Due to the Commonwealth Immigration Act, the numbers of West Indian immigrants fell to an average of less than 14,000 a year; by the 1970s, the number would further decrease to less than 3,000 a year. In 1963, the Black West Indian Association complained that although brutal attacks by the police had escalated after the Act had passed, few people had paid attention. Brixton (London) police in particular, plagued blacks with a series of attacks they termed “nigger-hunting”. In 1966, Joseph A Hunte published Nigger Hunting in England?; (read more here…), issued to the West Indian Standing Conference on police brutality. The general public paid little attention to the book.

1970s – By the 1970s a generation of Britons of African heritage existed: two-fifths of the blacks in Britain were second generation.

1971 – Leeds police officers were acquitted of manslaughter charges against David Oluwale; (read about it here…), a Nigerian vagrant. Police Sergeant Kenneth Kitching received a prison sentence of 27 months, and Geoffrey Ellerker, former police inspector, was sentenced for three years. According to witnesses, the two officers: “the guardians of law and order” kicked and beat Oluwale; Sergeant Kitching then urinated on him while he lay dying.

1972 – The West Indian Standing Conference delivered a memorandum to Parliament’s committee on relations between blacks and police. Upon delineating racist police attacks against the black community, the parliamentary committee was stunned, almost to “disbelief”. The committee’s chairman told the West Indian Conference that “The memorandum which you have submitted to us does present a case almost akin to civil war between West Indians and the police.”

1971 – 1973 – Emigrating West Indians outnumbered new immigrants: only 9,000 West Indians entered Britain, while 14,000 left. Selective Commonwealth immigration policies resulted in larger numbers of white-collar workers and their families migrating to Great Britain.





Norman Washington Manley was born at Roxborough, Manchester Jamaica on July 4, 1893. He was a brilliant scholar and athlete, soldier (First World War) and lawyer. He identified himself with the cause of the workers at the time of the labour troubles of 1938 and donated time and advocacy to the cause.

In September 1938, Manley founded the People’s National Party (PNP) and was elected its President annually until his retirement in 1969, 31 years later.

Manley and the PNP supported the trade union movement, then led by Alexander Bustamante, while leading the demand for Universal Adult Suffrage. When Suffrage came, Manley had to wait ten years and two terms before his party was elected to office.

He was a strong advocate of the Federation of the West Indies, established in 1958, but when Sir Alexander Bustamante declared that the opposition Jamaica Labour Party (JLP), would take Jamaica out of the Federation, Norman Manley, already renowned for his integrity and commitment to democracy, called a Referendum, unprecedented in Jamaica, to let the people decide.

The vote was decisively against Jamaica’s continued membership of the Federation. Norman Manley, after arranging Jamaica’s orderly withdrawal from the union, set up a joint committee to decide on a constitution for separate Independence for Jamaica.

He himself chaired the committee with great distinction and then led the team that negotiated the island’s Independence from Britain. The issue settled, Manley again went to the people. He lost the ensuing election to the JLP and gave his last years of service as Leader of the Opposition, establishing definitively the role of the Parliamentary Opposition in a developing nation.

In his last public address to an annual conference of the PNP, he said: “I say that the mission of my generation was to win self-government for Jamaica, to win political power which is the final power for the black masses of my country from which I spring. I am proud to stand here today and say to you who fought that fight with me, say it with gladness and pride, mission accomplished for my generation; and what is the mission of this generation?  It is reconstructing the social and economic society and life of Jamaica”.

Norman Manley died on September 2. 1969.

Read more about the man, his mission and his political party here…



As early as the 1900’s the game of cricket had become a part of the West Indian people and was commonly played throughout the region. With the game taking its permanent root in territorial soil it began to bear a crop of young players who brought their own homespun skill and flair to the field of play. Since achieving Test status in 1928 the West Indies have become known for their unique flair eventually being dubbed the “Calypso Cricketers” and have captured the imagination of the cricketing world. The region is small but produced great cricketing stars such as those from Barbados: Joel Garner, Gordon Greenidge, Wes Hall, Desmond Haynes, Malcolm Marshall, Sir Garfield Sobers, Sir Clyde Walcott, Sir Everton Weekes, Sir Frank Worrell, Conrad Hunte. From the Combined Islands: Curtly Ambrose, Sir Vivian Richards, Richie Richardson, Andy Roberts, Ridley Jacobs. From Guyana: Shivnarine Chanderpaul, Lance Gibbs, Carl Hooper, Alvin Kallicharran, Rohan Kanhai, Clive Lloyd, Roy Fredericks. From Jamaica: Jeff Dujon, George Headley, Michael Holding, Lawrence Rowe, Courtney Walsh, Alf Valentine. From Trinidad & Tobago: Ian Bishop, Sir Learie Constantine, Larry Gomes, Brian Lara, Sonny Ramadhin, Deryck Murray.

Through the years from the eras of Learie Constantine and George Headley, the 3 W’S era (Weekes, Worrell and Walcott), the Garry Sobers era, the Clive Lloyd era to the Brian Lara era, the West Indies have always been a force to be reckoned with, dominating the world stage for many years.

An undisputed fact: From February 1980 to March 1995, the West Indies did not lose an international test series at home and abroad. They were unbeaten for 15 years! No other sporting team in any discipline anywhere in the world have dominated their sport for 15 years nor will it be equalled or surpassed and we should be well proud of that.

Read and watch more about the history of the great West Indies Cricket team; here…



Deep in the jungles of Gujarat state in western India, a forgotten tribe of Africans has quietly lived for the past 1,000 years. Little is known about their origins and many now fear their unique heritage may already be lost; watch this clip here…



This video is dedicated to Mexicans with African ancestry. Mexicans who are black account for less than 1% of the country’s population, yet those with African ancestry account for no more than 3% of the population because Mexico is populated mostly by mestizos; catch the video here…



A pale skin resembles beauty in Japan, but that no longer doesn’t count for everyone. Hina lives her life according to the ‘B-style’, or the ‘black lifestyle’. This includes going to the tanning salon regularly to become as dark as American hip hop artists; click here…



Dr. Claud Anderson speaks about Racism Based Profits on Wall Street and Unearned Income … Powernomics; check it out here…



BBC Midlands interviews film maker Steve Page on 40th Anniversary of Malcolm X visit to Smethwick, UK. Malcolm was assassinated 9 days later in New York; watch it here… and check out THE VOICE report about his visit to Smethwick, Birmingham here…



Amanirena (Warrior Queen of the Kingdom of Kush) – Ameniras challenged the Romans who took over Egypt after the passing of Cleopatra VII. She reigned from about 40 BCE to 10 BCE. She is one of the most famous kandakes, because of her role leading Kushites armies against the Romans from in a war that lasted five years, from 27 BCE to 22 BCE. After an initial victory when she attacked Roman Egypt, Amanirenas was defeated at Qasr Ibrim by Petronius. She succeeded in negotiating a peace treaty on favourable terms. Amanirenas was described as brave, and blind in one eye; read more about her here…

Queen Califa – Black Madonnas or dark goddesses like Queen Califa are often central Carnival figures associated with feminine wisdom and powers of the earth, moon and water. Near the beginning of Brazil’s Carnival season are many Iemanja (ee-mon-jah) festivals where flowers are cast into the sea, the most popular icon in Latin America is the Lady of Guadeloupe whose miraculous first appearances were upon the ruins of the temple to the Aztec Earth goddess. Historically, many great stars have played this enchanting role from the bible’s Mary Magdalene through art’s Frida Kahlo and of course the chameleon pop singer Madonna whose most memorable moments often relied on the hidden power of this timely archetype; read more here…

Zawditu (Empress of Ethiopia) – Ras Tafari remained as the right hand man of Empress Zewditu. Empress Zawditu was the daughter of Menelik II and co-ruled with Ras Tafari, later Emperor Haile Selassie. She is usually presented as a conservative as opposed to her modernizing father, Menelik II. During the last two years of her reign, therefore, Zawditu turned inward, and became a mystic. When her husband, Gugsa, died on March 31, 1930, in a battle with imperial forces, after he had attempted to depose Tafari, Zawditu appears to have had a nervous and physical breakdown.

Claudia Jones (1915-1964) – Born in Belmont, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, she emigrated with her family in 1924 at the age of eight to the USA, where poverty and racism led her to develop a race and class consciousness which, in turn, inspired her lifelong dedication to the progress of socialism and the liberation of black people. Like Queen Mother Moore, she joined the movement to free the Scottsboro Boys and while working with the Scottsboro Defence Committee, became associated with the Communist Party, which she readily joined; read more about her here…

John William “Blind” Boone (1864 – 1927) was a famous classical pianist known all over the U.S., Canada & Mexico who also reportedly played in Europe. He became known as the “pioneer of ragtime” because he brought in ragtime music to the concert stage as an encore or when the audience became restless, saying “Let’s put the cookies on the bottom shelf where everybody can reach them.”. His motto was “Merit, not sympathy, wins.” Read more about him here…

Rafael Trujillo (1891 – 1961), led a military revolt in 1930 that led to his assuming power for 31 years in the Dominican Republic; either as President or as the power behind the Presidency. He bought stability to his country but lost power to the army due to economic problems. He was assassinated by army elements in 1961. Read more about him here…

Francois “Papa Doc” Duvalier (1907 – 1971), was a trained physician and he entered politics in the 1930s as champion of poor blacks against the Mulatto Elites in Haiti. In 1957, Duvalier became President of Haiti and he began building a dictatorship marked by corruption and terror. He died in 1971 and was succeeded by his son. Read more about him here…

Dr. Herman Branson – Born: August 14, 1914 – Died: June 7, 1995. His birthplace was Pocahontas, Virginia U.S.A. In 1947, Dr. Branson was named the Directory of the Office of Naval Research and Atomic Energy Commission Projects in Physics at Howard University. He was named Director of the Research Corporation Project at Howard University 1946 to 1950. In 1944 he became a full professor of Physics and was made Chairman of the Physics Department of Howard University (1941 – 1968). Central State University selected his as President (1968 – 1970). In 1970 he became the President of Lincoln University and served until his retirement in 1985. He wrote extensively on physical-chemical studies of sickled anemic red blood cells; read more about him here…

Here ends your history lesson for this issue.


Check out CULTURE CORNER ARCHIVES which is constantly updated here…


Log on for more CULTURE CORNER in June 2012 and remember…

“Obviously war is one of the major problems which bring disaster on the life of mankind. Inspite of the differences of color, race, creed or religion between women in this world, they all hate war, because the fruit of wars is nothing but disaster. War exterminates their beloved husbands, their brothers and their children. It destroys and eliminates their families. We would like to bring to the attention of all women of the world that it is their duty to voice and express solidarity against such acts.

Empress Menen

Sunrise: 25 March 1883 Ethiopian Calendar, 3 April 1891 Gregorian Calendar – Sunset: 15 February 1962

‘Til June 2012 – Everyting – Bless

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